PRINCETON, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (NYSE:BMY) today announced results of an interim descriptive analysis from an ongoing National Cancer Institute (NCI) Phase 3 randomized study evaluating Yervoy (ipilimumab) 3 mg/kg and Yervoy 10 mg/kg in patients with stage III or resectable stage IV melanoma who are at high risk of recurrence following complete surgical resection. In this unplanned analysis of relapse-free survival (RFS) in concurrently randomized patients between the two experimental arms RFS at three years was 56% (n=367) for Yervoy 3 mg/kg (95% CI: 0.50, 0.61) and 54% (n=406) for Yervoy 10 mg/kg (95% CI: 0.49, 0.60).
All-Cause Grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs) were experienced by 53% of patients in the Yervoy 3mg/kg arm (n=516) and 66% of patients in the Yervoy 10 mg/kg (n=503) arm. Treatment-related Grade 3/4 AEs were experienced by 37% and 57% of patients in the Yervoy 3mg/kg and 10 mg/kg arms, respectively. Treatment-related AEs led to discontinuation in 35% of patients taking Yervoy 3 mg/kg and 54% taking Yervoy 10 mg/kg. There were eight deaths in the Yervoy 10 mg/kg arm and two in the Yervoy 3 mg/kg arm that were considered at least possibly treatment-related. These data will be presented during an oral session today from 8:00 – 8:12 a.m. CT during the Melanoma/Skin Cancers session in the Arie Crown Theater at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting 2017.
“Adjuvant therapy with ipilimumab represents an important option for appropriate stage III melanoma patients following complete resection who have a significant risk of disease recurrence; however, management of adverse events is essential to help ensure that appropriate patients are able to benefit from treatment,” said Ahmad A. Tarhini, MD, PhD, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute. “These data are important because they advance our understanding of the benefits and risks of ipilimumab in the adjuvant setting.”
“There is a need for safe and effective treatment options for melanoma patients after surgery who are at high-risk of relapse, only about half of whom receive treatment,” said Vicki Goodman, M.D., development lead, Melanoma and Genitourinary Cancers, Bristol-Myers Squibb. “This analysis provides valuable information that may help inform treatment decisions.”
E1609 is a Phase 3 study that enrolled 1,673 adult patients between May 2011 and August 2014 at multiple clinical sites, all belonging to the research groups in the NCI’s National Clinical Trials Network that design and lead trials focused on adult cancers: the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology, ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group, NRG Oncology, and SWOG. The study is comparing the effect of adjuvant Yervoy at either 3 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg versus high-dose interferon in adult patients with high-risk stage III or IV melanoma that has been removed by surgery. The study was not designed to compare the two Yervoy arms to each other. This analysis was performed to inform the effect of dose on efficacy and safety in the adjuvant setting. Co-primary endpoints of the study are overall survival and RFS comparing Yervoy versus high dose interferon α-2b. Secondary outcome measures include global quality of life and the safety profile of adjuvant Yervoy (10 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg) versus high-dose recombinant interferon α-2b. In this descriptive analysis, data was presented on the efficacy and safety of Yervoy 3 mg/kg and Yervoy 10 mg/kg at a median follow up of 3.1 years.
Adjuvant Therapy in Melanoma
Melanoma is separated into five staging categories (stages 0-4) based on the in-situ feature, thickness and ulceration of the tumor, whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, and how far the cancer has spread beyond lymph nodes.
Stage 3 melanoma has reached the regional lymph nodes but has not yet spread to distant lymph nodes or to other parts of the body (metastasized), and requires surgical resection of the primary tumor as well as the involved lymph nodes. Some patients may also be treated with adjuvant therapy, although adjuvant treatment options are very limited. Despite surgical intervention and possible adjuvant treatment, most patients experience disease recurrence and progress to metastatic disease. By five years, the majority of stage 3B and 3C patients (68% and 89%, respectively) and a third of stage 3A patients (37%) have experienced disease recurrence.
Bristol-Myers Squibb & Immuno-Oncology: Advancing Oncology Research
At Bristol-Myers Squibb, patients are at the center of everything we do. Our vision for the future of cancer care is focused on researching and developing transformational Immuno-Oncology (I-O) medicines for hard-to-treat cancers that could potentially improve outcomes for these patients.
We are leading the scientific understanding of I-O through our extensive portfolio of investigational compounds and approved agents. Our differentiated clinical development program is studying broad patient populations across more than 50 types of cancers with 14 clinical-stage molecules designed to target different immune system pathways. Our deep expertise and innovative clinical trial designs position us to advance the I-O/I-O, I-O/chemotherapy, I-O/targeted therapies and I-O radiation therapies across multiple tumors and potentially deliver the next wave of therapies with a sense of urgency. We also continue to pioneer research that will help facilitate a deeper understanding of the role of immune biomarkers and how a patient’s tumor biology can be used as a guide for treatment decisions throughout their journey.
We understand making the promise of I-O a reality for the many patients who may benefit from these therapies requires not only innovation on our part but also close collaboration with leading experts in the field. Our partnerships with academia, government, advocacy and biotech companies support our collective goal of providing new treatment options to advance the standards of clinical practice.
Yervoy is a recombinant, human monoclonal antibody that binds to the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4). CTLA-4 is a negative regulator of T-cell activity. Yervoy binds to CTLA-4 and blocks the interaction of CTLA-4 with its ligands, CD80/CD86. Blockade of CTLA-4 has been shown to augment T-cell activation and proliferation, including the activation and proliferation of tumor infiltrating T-effector cells. Inhibition of CTLA-4 signaling can also reduce T-regulatory cell function, which may contribute to a general increase in T-cell responsiveness, including the anti-tumor immune response. On March 25, 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Yervoy 3 mg/kg monotherapy for patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma. Yervoy is approved for unresectable or metastatic melanoma in more than 50 countries. There is a broad, ongoing development program in place for Yervoy spanning multiple tumor types.
Indications and Important Safety Information for YERVOY ® (ipilimumab)
YERVOY® (ipilimumab) is indicated for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma.
YERVOY® (ipilimumab) is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of patients with cutaneous melanoma with pathologic involvement of regional lymph nodes of more than 1 mm who have undergone complete resection, including total lymphadenectomy.
Important Safety Information
WARNING: IMMUNE-MEDIATED ADVERSE REACTIONS
YERVOY (ipilimumab) can result in severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions. These immune-mediated reactions may involve any organ system; however, the most common severe immune-mediated adverse reactions are enterocolitis, hepatitis, dermatitis (including toxic epidermal necrolysis), neuropathy, and endocrinopathy. The majority of these immune-mediated reactions initially manifested during treatment; however, a minority occurred weeks to months after discontinuation of YERVOY.
Permanently discontinue YERVOY and initiate systemic high-dose corticosteroid therapy for severe immune-mediated reactions.
Assess patients for signs and symptoms of enterocolitis, dermatitis, neuropathy, and endocrinopathy and evaluate clinical chemistries including liver function tests (LFTs), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level, and thyroid function tests, at baseline and before each dose.
Recommended Dose Modifications
Endocrine: Withhold YERVOY for systemic endocrinopathy. Resume YERVOY in patients with complete or partial resolution of adverse reactions (Grade 0-1) and who are receiving <7.5 mg prednisone or equivalent per day. Permanently discontinue YERVOY for symptomatic reactions lasting 6 weeks or longer or an inability to reduce corticosteroid dose to 7.5 mg prednisone or equivalent per day.
Ophthalmologic: Permanently discontinue YERVOY for Grade 2-4 reactions not improving to Grade 1 within 2 weeks while receiving topical therapy or requiring systemic treatment.
All Other Organ Systems: Withhold YERVOY for Grade 2 adverse reactions. Resume YERVOY in patients with complete or partial resolution of adverse reactions (Grade 0-1) and who are receiving <7.5 mg prednisone or equivalent per day. Permanently discontinue YERVOY for Grade 2 reactions lasting 6 weeks or longer, an inability to reduce corticosteroid dose to 7.5 mg prednisone or equivalent per day, and Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions.
Immune-mediated enterocolitis, including fatal cases, can occur with YERVOY. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of enterocolitis (such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, mucus or blood in stool, with or without fever) and of bowel perforation (such as peritoneal signs and ileus). In symptomatic patients, rule out infectious etiologies and consider endoscopic evaluation for persistent or severe symptoms. Withhold YERVOY for moderate enterocolitis; administer anti-diarrheal treatment and, if persistent for >1 week, initiate systemic corticosteroids (0.5 mg/kg/day prednisone or equivalent). Permanently discontinue YERVOY in patients with severe enterocolitis and initiate systemic corticosteroids (1-2 mg/kg/day of prednisone or equivalent). Upon improvement to ≤Grade 1, initiate corticosteroid taper and continue over at least 1 month. In clinical trials, rapid corticosteroid tapering resulted in recurrence or worsening symptoms of enterocolitis in some patients. Consider adding anti-TNF or other immunosuppressant agents for management of immune-mediated enterocolitis unresponsive to systemic corticosteroids within 3-5 days or recurring after symptom improvement. In patients receiving YERVOY 3 mg/kg in Trial 1, severe, life-threatening, or fatal (diarrhea of ≥7 stools above baseline, fever, ileus, peritoneal signs; Grade 3-5) immune-mediated enterocolitis occurred in 34 YERVOY-treated patients (7%) and moderate (diarrhea with up to 6 stools above baseline, abdominal pain, mucus or blood in stool; Grade 2) enterocolitis occurred in 28 YERVOY-treated patients (5%). Across all YERVOY-treated patients (n=511), 5 (1%) developed intestinal perforation, 4 (0.8%) died as a result of complications, and 26 (5%) were hospitalized for severe enterocolitis. Infliximab was administered to 5 (8%) of the 62 patients with moderate, severe, or life-threatening immune-mediated enterocolitis following inadequate response to corticosteroids. In patients receiving YERVOY 10 mg/kg in Trial 2, Grade 3-5 immune-mediated enterocolitis occurred in 76 patients (16%) and Grade 2 enterocolitis occurred in 68 patients (14%). Seven (1.5%) developed intestinal perforation and 3 patients (0.6%) died as a result of complications.
Immune-mediated hepatitis, including fatal cases, can occur with YERVOY. Monitor LFTs (hepatic transaminase and bilirubin levels) and assess patients for signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity before each dose of YERVOY. In patients with hepatotoxicity, rule out infectious or malignant causes and increase frequency of LFT monitoring until resolution. Withhold YERVOY in patients with Grade 2 hepatotoxicity. Permanently discontinue YERVOY in patients with Grade 3-4 hepatotoxicity and administer systemic corticosteroids (1-2 mg/kg/day of prednisone or equivalent). When LFTs show sustained improvement or return to baseline, initiate corticosteroid tapering and continue over 1 month. Across the clinical development program for YERVOY, mycophenolate treatment has been administered in patients with persistent severe hepatitis despite high-dose corticosteroids. In patients receiving YERVOY 3 mg/kg in Trial 1, severe, life-threatening, or fatal hepatotoxicity (AST or ALT elevations >5× the ULN or total bilirubin elevations >3× the ULN; Grade 3-5) occurred in 8 YERVOY-treated patients (2%), with fatal hepatic failure in 0.2% and hospitalization in 0.4%. An additional 13 patients (2.5%) experienced moderate hepatotoxicity manifested by LFT abnormalities (AST or ALT elevations >2.5× but ≤5× the ULN or total bilirubin elevation >1.5× but ≤3× the ULN; Grade 2). In a dose-finding trial, Grade 3 increases in transaminases with or without concomitant increases in total bilirubin occurred in 6 of 10 patients who received concurrent YERVOY (3 mg/kg) and vemurafenib (960 mg BID or 720 mg BID). In patients receiving YERVOY 10 mg/kg in Trial 2, Grade 3-4 immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 51 patients (11%) and moderate Grade 2 immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 22 patients (5%). Liver biopsy performed in 6 patients with Grade 3-4 hepatitis showed evidence of toxic or autoimmune hepatitis.
Immune-mediated dermatitis, including fatal cases, can occur with YERVOY. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of dermatitis such as rash and pruritus. Unless an alternate etiology has been identified, signs or symptoms of dermatitis should be considered immune-mediated. Treat mild to moderate dermatitis (e.g., localized rash and pruritus) symptomatically; administer topical or systemic corticosteroids if there is no improvement within 1 week. Withhold YERVOY in patients with moderate to severe signs and symptoms. Permanently discontinue YERVOY in patients with severe, life-threatening, or fatal immune-mediated dermatitis (Grade 3-5). Administer systemic corticosteroids (1-2 mg/kg/day of prednisone or equivalent). When dermatitis is controlled, corticosteroid tapering should occur over a period of at least 1 month. In patients receiving YERVOY 3 mg/kg in Trial 1, severe, life-threatening, or fatal immune-mediated dermatitis (e.g., Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, or rash complicated by full thickness dermal ulceration, or necrotic, bullous, or hemorrhagic manifestations; Grade 3-5) occurred in 13 YERVOY-treated patients (2.5%); 1 patient (0.2%) died as a result of toxic epidermal necrolysis and 1 additional patient required hospitalization for severe dermatitis. There were 63 patients (12%) with moderate (Grade 2) dermatitis. In patients receiving YERVOY 10 mg/kg in Trial 2, Grade 3-4 immune-mediated dermatitis occurred in 19 patients (4%). There were 99 patients (21%) with moderate Grade 2 dermatitis.
Immune-mediated neuropathies, including fatal cases, can occur with YERVOY. Monitor for symptoms of motor or sensory neuropathy such as unilateral or bilateral weakness, sensory alterations, or paresthesia. Withhold YERVOY in patients with moderate neuropathy (not interfering with daily activities). Permanently discontinue YERVOY in patients with severe neuropathy (interfering with daily activities), such as Guillain-Barre-like syndromes. Institute medical intervention as appropriate for management for severe neuropathy. Consider initiation of systemic corticosteroids (1-2 mg/kg/day of prednisone or equivalent) for severe neuropathies. In patients receiving YERVOY 3 mg/kg in Trial 1, 1 case of fatal Guillain-Barré syndrome and 1 case of severe (Grade 3) peripheral motor neuropathy were reported. Across the clinical development program of YERVOY, myasthenia gravis and additional cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome have been reported. In patients receiving YERVOY 10 mg/kg in Trial 2, Grade 3-5 immune-mediated neuropathy occurred in 8 patients (2%); the sole fatality was due to complications of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Moderate Grade 2 immune-mediated neuropathy occurred in 1 patient (0.2%).
Immune-mediated endocrinopathies, including life-threatening cases, can occur with YERVOY. Monitor patients for clinical signs and symptoms of hypophysitis, adrenal insufficiency (including adrenal crisis), and hyper- or hypothyroidism. Patients may present with fatigue, headache, mental status changes, abdominal pain, unusual bowel habits, and hypotension, or nonspecific symptoms which may resemble other causes such as brain metastasis or underlying disease. Unless an alternate etiology has been identified, signs or symptoms should be considered immune-mediated. Monitor clinical chemistries, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level, and thyroid function tests at the start of treatment, before each dose, and as clinically indicated based on symptoms. In a limited number of patients, hypophysitis was diagnosed by imaging studies through enlargement of the pituitary gland. Withhold YERVOY in symptomatic patients and consider referral to an endocrinologist. Initiate systemic corticosteroids (1-2 mg/kg/day of prednisone or equivalent) and initiate appropriate hormone replacement therapy. In patients receiving YERVOY 3 mg/kg in Trial 1, severe to life-threatening immune-mediated endocrinopathies (requiring hospitalization, urgent medical intervention, or interfering with activities of daily living; Grade 3-4) occurred in 9 YERVOY-treated patients (1.8%). All 9 patients had hypopituitarism, and some had additional concomitant endocrinopathies such as adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, and hypothyroidism. Six of the 9 patients were hospitalized for severe endocrinopathies. Moderate endocrinopathy (requiring hormone replacement or medical intervention; Grade 2) occurred in 12 patients (2.3%) and consisted of hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypopituitarism, and 1 case each of hyperthyroidism and Cushing's syndrome. The median time to onset of moderate to severe immune-mediated endocrinopathy was 2.5 months and ranged up to 4.4 months after the initiation of YERVOY. In patients receiving YERVOY 10 mg/kg in Trial 2, Grade 3-4 immune-mediated endocrinopathies occurred in 39 patients (8%) and Grade 2 immune-mediated endocrinopathies occurred in 93 patients (20%). Of the 39 patients with Grade 3-4 immune-mediated endocrinopathies, 35 patients had hypopituitarism (associated with 1 or more secondary endocrinopathies, e.g., adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, and hypothyroidism), 3 patients had hyperthyroidism, and 1 had primary hypothyroidism. The median time to onset of Grade 3-4 immune-mediated endocrinopathy was 2.2 months (range: 2 days-8 months). Twenty-seven (69.2%) of the 39 patients were hospitalized for immune-mediated endocrinopathies. Of the 93 patients with Grade 2 immune-mediated endocrinopathy, 74 had primary hypopituitarism (associated with 1 or more secondary endocrinopathy, e.g., adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, and hypothyroidism), 9 had primary hypothyroidism, 3 had hyperthyroidism, 3 had thyroiditis with hypo- or hyperthyroidism, 2 had hypogonadism, 1 had both hyperthyroidism and hypopituitarism, and 1 subject developed Graves’ ophthalmopathy. The median time to onset of Grade 2 immune-mediated endocrinopathy was 2.1 months (range: 9 days-19.3 months).
Other Immune-mediated Adverse Reactions, Including Ocular Manifestations:
Permanently discontinue YERVOY for clinically significant or severe immune-mediated adverse reactions. Initiate systemic corticosteroids (1-2 mg/kg/day of prednisone or equivalent) for severe immune-mediated adverse reactions. Administer corticosteroid eye drops for uveitis, iritis, or episcleritis. Permanently discontinue YERVOY for immune-mediated ocular disease unresponsive to local immunosuppressive therapy. In Trial 1, the following clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions were seen in <1% of YERVOY-treated patients: nephritis, pneumonitis, meningitis, pericarditis, uveitis, iritis, and hemolytic anemia. In Trial 2, the following clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions were seen in <1% of YERVOY-treated patients unless specified: eosinophilia (2.1%), pancreatitis (1.3%), meningitis, pneumonitis, sarcoidosis, pericarditis, uveitis and fatal myocarditis. Across 21 dose-ranging trials administering YERVOY at doses of 0.1 to 20 mg/kg (n=2478), the following likely immune-mediated adverse reactions were also reported with <1% incidence: angiopathy, temporal arteritis, vasculitis, polymyalgia rheumatica, conjunctivitis, blepharitis, episcleritis, scleritis, iritis, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, erythema multiforme, psoriasis, arthritis, autoimmune thyroiditis, neurosensory hypoacusis, autoimmune central neuropathy (encephalitis), myositis, polymyositis, ocular myositis, hemolytic anemia, and nephritis.
Based on its mechanism of action, YERVOY can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. The effects of YERVOY are likely to be greater during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with a YERVOY-containing regimen and for 3 months after the last dose of YERVOY.
It is not known whether YERVOY is secreted in human milk. Advise women to discontinue nursing during treatment with YERVOY and for 3 months following the final dose.
Common Adverse Reactions:
The most common adverse reactions (≥5%) in patients who received YERVOY at 3 mg/kg were fatigue (41%), diarrhea (32%), pruritis (31%), rash (29%), and colitis (8%). The most common adverse reactions (≥5%) in patients who received YERVOY at 10 mg/kg were rash (50%), diarrhea (49%), fatigue (46%), pruritus (45%), headache (33%), weight loss (32%), nausea (25%), pyrexia (18%), colitis (16%), decreased appetite (14%), vomiting (13%), and insomnia (10%).
Please see Full Prescribing Information for YERVOY, including Boxed WARNING regarding immune-mediated adverse reactions.
Yervoy is a registered trademark of Bristol-Myers Squibb Company.
About Bristol-Myers Squibb
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Bristol-Myers Squibb Forward-Looking Statement
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