The research study covers the present scenario and growth prospects of the global genome engineering market for 2016-2020. The report also presents the vendor landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the top four vendors operating in the market. Also, the report discusses the major drivers that are influencing market growth and the challenges faced by vendors and the market as a whole.
Genome engineering is expected to show double digit growth in the forecast period due its high demand in gene therapy and medicine production. Genome engineering technologies are used across applications in the areas of oncology and critical disease management. In preimplantation genetic screening, DNA sequencing is used during in-vitro fertilization, to determine the presence of abnormal chromosomes, which can cause miscarriages or failure of the procedure. Genetic engineering can remove the defective genes, and replace them with appropriate ones, which can help in early diagnosis. Advances in genome engineering technologies will lead to their demand in germline gene therapy and other areas such as genetic analysis of rare diseases, preventive solutions for diabetes, oncology, and personalized medicine.
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Technavio healthcare and life sciences analysts highlight the following three factors that are contributing to the growth of the global genome engineering market:
- Potential opportunities in orphan diseases and oncology
- Improved specificity of CRISPR technology
- Increased focus on human genomics
Potential opportunities in orphan diseases and oncology
Scientists have been using CRISPR/Cas9, as a part of the adaptive immune system of bacteria. Using Cas9 bound to an RNA guide, can match a desired DNA sequence, which can fight against the disease. When the guide reaches the target site in the genome, the protein makes a cut, after which the cell’s DNA repair machinery completes the edit. This approach holds several advantages over traditional gene therapy, which affects the structure or function of a defective gene, resulting in better control of expression.
Srinivas Sashidhar, a lead life science research tools analyst at Technavio, says, “CRISPR system is the one of the best innovative technologies that has the potential to reshape a larger gene therapy landscape to treat a broad range of disorders including cancer, viral infection and genetic diseases. Many vendors are using CRISPR system to enter into the niche genome engineering market.”
Improved specificity of CRISPR technology
Crispr/Cas9 has advantages in terms of precision, accessibility and scalability over prior gene editing methods like ZFNs and TALENs. The engineered RNA guide used in Crispr/Cas9, can be optimized by simply using a different RNA sequence which allows multiple guide RNA/ Cas9 combinations to be created for each genetic target. This makes it easier to find the right place (DNA sequence site) for editing the DNA sequence, based on the desired efficiency and specificity (change the DNA sequence as directed). ZFNs and TALENs, on the other hand, are more difficult to develop since they use proteins for DNA sequence recognition, and require an entirely new protein to be created for each target site.
“Though off-target mutation occurs usually with CRISPR or Cas9 technology, in July, 2015, researchers at Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital have found techniques to overcome the off-target mutations. The techniques are now widely used to modify human cancer cells and embryonic stem cells,” adds Srinivas.
Increased focus on human genomics
Human genome project has vast potential applications of genetic engineering, and it requires effort to understand and map the DNA of humans when compared to other organisms. To understand and sequence the human genome, the Department of Energy and the National Human Genome Research Institute in the US and their partners in the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium initiated the Human Genome Project in 1990. The project sequenced only the euchromatic regions that constitute 90% of the genome including 20,000-25,000 genes. The successful completion of the project in 2003 led to improvements in DNA technology.
The sequencing of the human genome has helped research institutes, hospitals, and pharmaceutical and life sciences companies to solve complex biological issues. The complete knowledge about DNA sequencing has developed genetic engineering, that provided better understanding of human evolution and genetic disease and led to the identification of oncogenes. It also helped identify the cause of genetic disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Scleroderma, asthma, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, osteoporosis, connective tissue disease, and autoimmune diseases.
- Horizon Discovery Group
- Integrated DNA Technologies
- OriGene Technologies
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